No truer statement rings true of economic bubbles than that of *you know something’s wrong when everyone’s talking about it*. And no statement is more fitting to the recent crypto craze, headlined by Bitcoin surpassing a market cap of *1 trillion USD*. This surge in price, as well as the overall atmosphere, draws numerous parallels with that of the Dot-Com bubble, as well as the Great Crash of 1929. …

On November 30, 2020, DeepMind Technologies, a British AI company that was acquired by Alphabet in 2014, completely reshaped the field of molecular biology, bioengineering, and the life sciences via their breakthrough in the *protein folding problem*. This is a truly disruptive technology that has the potential to tackle some of the biggest obstacles humanity faces. Let’s break it down.

COVID-19 has shone a new light on the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry, highlighting the diversity and importance of these fields. Three viable vaccines were approved for use within a year, with many more on their way — an incredible achievement…

Quantum computing is an exponential technology that has the capability to solve some of the biggest problems facing humanity. One of the first fields which will benefit from this emerging field is that of *quantum chemistry*.

Quantum chemistry is concerned with the underlying behaviours of atoms and molecules, and what happens behind the scenes during a chemical reaction or process. Quantum chemistry revolves around the principles of **quantum mechanics** — the mechanics of the atomic and subatomic.

Quantum particles are inherently *probabilistic*. According to the **Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle**, we can never simultaneously know both the *position* and the *momentum* of…

Quantum computing is one of the most exciting emerging technologies, especially with Google’s Sycamore quantum processor demonstrating supremacy in October of 2019. Quantum computing marks a paradigm shift in computing, having the potential to overhaul digital security and fuel scientific breakthroughs. But, what exactly is quantum computing?

Let’s start with classical computing. At the heart of classical computing is the concept of *computer logic*. Computer logic is comprised of *information *and *information processing*. Information is simply strings of 1s and 0s. A conventional computer represents everything — from text to images— as a string of **bits (binary digits)**. All your…

Integral calculus and differential calculus are two sides of the same coin. Integration, however, can seem more complicated than differentiation because it involves the introduction of foreign notation and abstract ideas. However, the *ideas* themselves are beautifully intuitive and allow for the translation of complex ideas to simple algebraic manipulations. This article seeks to provide an intuitive view of integral calculus, showing how the math logically flows from the ideas and detailing the uses of integration.

Classical integration really isn’t much more than calculating areas under curves. In middle school, we all learnt how to calculate the areas of various…

Calculus is arguably the most influential mathematical discovery in history, finding uses in physics, economics, engineering, biology, and so much more. Calculus has two branches: Differential calculus; Integral calculus. The former grapples with the rate of change at an instant; the latter with the area between a function and the x-axis.

In this article, we will be looking at the differential flavour and, more importantly, at one of its many applications: optimization. Optimization involves finding either the *minimum* or *maximum* of a function. …

An individual has been described by a friend as follows: “Steve is very shy and withdrawn, invariably helpful but with very little interest in people or in the world of reality. A meek and tidy soul, he has a need for order and structure, and a passion for detail.” Is Steve more likely to be a librarian or a farmer?

In 1974 Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky provided incredible insight into *how we* *think*. They showed us just how wrong human rationale can be and how flawed our intuition can be. …

Machine learning has revolutionized our world, showcasing its application in a myriad of fields. Astutely put, it is the science of getting a computer to complete a specified task or achieve a certain goal without being *explicitly programmed*. This paradigm has shifted our world, revolutionizing how we view problems and design solutions. The focus of this article is linear regression, more specifically, **univariate linear regression**. The concepts used in linear regression capture the heart of machine learning and is an algorithm that can be understood and implemented with ease.

**Regression**, astutely put, is formulating an accurate prediction by determining the…

Data is the pathway upon which the future is being built. It is a language spoken everywhere, and being able to translate and transform data is becoming an increasingly pivotal skill. The power of data has grown immensely, and algorithms are now a companies strongest asset. In order to take advantage of this data, we must learn how to harness and translate it.

Data can be used in wonderous ways: what if I told you that you can use data to make an app that identifies hand-written digits? Or a program that recommends Medium stories? Or even build a search…

16-year old aspiring innovator and software developer with a passion for all things tech. Cogito, ergo sum.